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Ins and Outs of Income Tax

July 10, 2020

How Income Taxes Work

The 2020 tax deadline has come and gone. For many of us, we utilize a tax firm, CPA, or tax software to do our taxes. I know that you just got done filing for 2019, but do you ever wonder what the tax people or software are calculating for you? If you are completely over tax season, my apology, read no further, but, if you are the least bit curious, stick around because you might find it interesting. 

The Internal Revenue Service estimates that taxpayers and businesses spend 8.1 billion hours a year complying with tax-filing requirements. To put this into perspective, if all this work were done by a single company, it would need about four million full-time employees and be one of the largest industries in the U.S.1

As complex as the details of taxes can be, the income tax process is fairly straightforward. However, the majority of Americans would rather not understand the process, which explains why more than half hire a tax professional to assist in their annual filing.

Getting Started

The tax process starts with income, and generally, most income received is taxable. A taxpayer’s gross income includes income from work, investments, interest, pensions, as well as other sources. The income from all these sources is added together to arrive at the taxpayers’ gross income.

What’s not considered income? Gifts, inheritances, workers’ compensation benefits, welfare benefits, or cash rebates from a dealer or manufacturer.3

From gross income, adjustments are subtracted. These adjustments may include retirement plan contributions, half of self-employment, and moving expenses, among other items.

The result is the adjusted gross income.

From adjusted gross income, deductions are subtracted. With deductions, taxpayers have two choices: the standard deduction or itemized deductions. The standard deduction amount varies based on filing status, as shown on this chart:

Chart source:, 2019

Itemized deductions can include state and local taxes, charitable contributions, the interest on a home mortgage, certain unreimbursed job expenses, and even the cost of having your taxes prepared, among other things.4

Once deductions have been subtracted, the result is taxable income. Taxable income leads to gross tax liability.

But it’s not over yet.

Any tax credits are then subtracted from the gross tax liability. Taxpayers may receive credits for a variety of items, including energy-saving improvements.

The result is the taxpayer’s net tax.

And there you have it, ladies and gents! It can obviously get more complicated if you itemize your deductions or you own a small business or specific kinds of investments, but for the majority of people, this is the extent of how their income tax liability is calculated. 

If you made it this far, pat yourself on the back, you just expanded your knowledge on taxes, whether you liked it or not. 

  1. National Taxpayer's Union, April 16, 2018
  2., 2019
  3. The tax code allows an individual to gift up to $15,000 per person in 2019 without triggering any gift or estate taxes. An individual can give away up to $11,400,000 without owing any federal tax. Couples can leave up to $22,800,000 without owing any federal tax. Also, keep in mind that some states may have their own estate tax regulations. This material is not intended as tax or legal advice. Please consult a professional with tax or legal experience for specific information regarding your individual situation.
  4. The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 limits mortgage interest deduction to the first $750,000 of the loan for a home. The 2017 tax law change also limited to $10,000 the amount taxpayers may deduct in state and local income taxes.

The content is developed from sources believed to be providing accurate information. The information in this material is not intended as tax or legal advice. It may not be used for the purpose of avoiding any federal tax penalties. Please consult legal or tax professionals for specific information regarding your individual situation. This material was developed and produced by FMG Suite to provide information on a topic that may be of interest. FMG Suite is not affiliated with the named broker-dealer, state- or SEC-registered investment advisory firm. The opinions expressed and material provided are for general information, and should not be considered a solicitation for the purchase or sale of any security. Copyright 2019 FMG Suite.